Lithium is a Alkaline metal which has a atomic number 3. Its used in batterys and other things. Its color is silvery white.



silvery-white (shown floating in oil)
Lithium paraffin
Spectrum Lines of Li
Spectral lines of lithium
General properties
Name, symbol, number lithium, Li, 3
Pronunciation /ˈlɪθiəm/ LI-thee-əm
Element category alkali metal
Group, period, block 1, 2, s
Standard atomic weight 6.94(1)
Electron configuration [He] 2s1
2, 1
Electron shell 003 Lithium - no label
Discovery Johan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolation William Thomas Brande (1821)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t. 0.534 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 0.512 g·cm−3
Melting point 453.69 K, 180.54 °C, 356.97 °F
Boiling point 1615 K, 1342 °C, 2448 °F
Critical point (extrapolated)
3223 K, 67 MPa
Heat of fusion 3.00 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 147.1 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.860 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.98 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 520.2 kJ·mol−1

2nd: 7298.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 11815.0 kJ·mol−1

Atomic radius 152 pm
Covalent radius 128±7 pm
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 92.8 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 84.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 46 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 6000 m·s−1
Young's modulus 4.9 GPa
Shear modulus 4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus 11 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.6
CAS registry number 7439-93-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of lithium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
6Li 7.5% 6Li is stable with 3 neutrons
7Li 92.5% 7Li is stable with 4 neutrons
6Li content may be as low as 3.75% in
natural samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 96.25%.

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