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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth-most-abundant element in the Earth's crust[2] and ninth in the known universe as a whole.[3][4] Magnesium is the fourth-most-common element in the Earth as a whole (behind iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. The relative abundance of magnesium is related to the fact that it easily builds up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei).

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